Encyclopedia of geomorphology
The term ‘geomorphology’ arose in the Geological Survey in the USA in the 1880s and was possibly coined by those two great pioneers, J.W. Powell and WJ McGee. In 1891 McGee wrote: ‘The phenomena of degradation form the subject of geomorphology, the novel branch of geology.’ He plainly regarded geomorphology as being that part of geology which enabled the practitioner to reconstruct Earth history by looking at the evidence for past erosion, writing:
A new period in the development of geologic science has dawned within a decade. In at least two American centres and one abroad it has come to be recognised that the later history of world growth may be read from the configuration of the hills as well as from the sediments and fossils of ancient oceans . . . The field of science is thereby broadened by the addition of a coordinate province – by the birth of a new geology which is destined to rank with the old. This is geomorphic geology, or geomorphology.
The history of the study of landforms or the development of geomorphology
The present volume is divided into four parts. Part I deals with global influences concerned with crustal, climatic and eustatic changes which formed a backcloth to geomorphic studies during the period 1890–1950. Part II provides a natural link with our volume 2 by examining Davisian influences in the USA and Germany, in France and Britain, and worldwide. Part III is concerned with historical geomorphology through a consideration of four national themes—American polycyclic studies, French eustatic planation, British subaerial-marine synthesis, and the German tectonic approach. Part IV is devoted to regional geomorphology, with particular reference to regional classification and climatic geomorphology. In preparing the present volume we have been concerned to link it as closely as possible with its two predecessors and in this connection we have referred to the works of W.M.Davis according to the format of his complete bibliography given in volume 2, pp. 793–825.
Fundamentals of geomorphology
It is the aim of this Fundamentals of Physical Geography Series to provide, in five volumes, the fundamental nature of the physical processes that act on or just above the surface of the earth. The volumes in the series are Climatology, Geomorphology, Biogeography, Hydrology and Soils. The topics are treated in sufficient breadth and depth to provide the coverage expected in a Fundamentals series. Each volume leads into the topic by outlining the approach adopted. This is important because there may be several ways of approaching individual topics. Although each volume is complete in itself, there are many explicit and implicit references to the topics covered in the other volumes. Thus, the five volumes together provide a comprehensive insight into the totality that is Physical Geography.
Geology and Geomorphology of Holocene Coastal Barriers of Brazil
This is the first book to cover the Holocene geology and geomorphology of the 9,200 kilometers of the Brazilian coast. It is written for third and fourth year undergraduates, post-graduate students, scientists and managers. It characterizes the Brazilian coast in terms of the Holocene geology, geomorphology, oceanographic and climatic conditions, and the location, morphology and evolution of the barrier types. Separate chapters outline the types of barriers and coastal dynamics in each state, beginning in the south and proceeding to the north. Some emphasis is placed on the stretches of coast where the detailed morphology and stratigraphy of barriers has been previously determined.
Geomorphic instability and change–Introduction: Implications of temporal and spatial scales
Geomorphic systems are characterised by change. Change may be intrinsic to the system, manifested as slow progressive change, or as morphological change related to system adjustment in response to temporal variations in system inputs. Other changesmay be brought about by external forcing, by tectonic, climatic or humaninduced factors. The stability of a geomorphic system will depend onwhether the changes are linear, or non-linear, or threshold-related and whether the effects of change are locally damped or propagate through the system. phenomena showboth spatial and temporal characteristics.
Mountain river channels
The papers in this collection constitute the second of two special issues focused on mountain rivers. This volume is devoted to processes in mountain channels, following a foray into watershed-scale processes and morphology in the first issue. In-channel processes of mountain rivers are particularly difficult to measure because of logistical difficulties associated with steep rugged terrains. They are also difficult to explain because the presence of large roughness elements creates complex flow hydraulics and leads to discontinuous sediment movement spatially and temporally.
Geomorphology of oil and gas fields in sandstone bodies
This book is essentially about stratigraphic traps for oil and gas. Many of the examples discussed are geomorphologic features having inherent closures without any secondary structural element; others are primarily geomorphologic features modified by folding or faulting to produce local closures. The first category comprises traps that are purely stratigraphic, although the accumulation of hydrocarbons may have been assisted by regional or local tilting of the strata, or by deformation caused by compaction of the underlying sediments. The second category, which includes a much larger number of known examples, comprises structural-stratigraphic traps. Many of these traps have proved to be elusive, particularly those of the first category which commonly defy detection by seismic methods. In some cases, discovery has been accidental, and further exploration to delineate the accumulation has been empirical.
geoENV IV – GEOSTATISTICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS
The plate tectonics revolution in the earth sciences has provided a valuable new framework for understanding long-term landform development. This innovative text provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject of global geomorphology, with the emphasis placed on large-scale processes and phenomena. Integrating global tectonics into the study of landforms and incorporating planetary geomorphology as a major component the author discusses the impact of climatic change and the role of catastrophic events on landform genesis and includes a comprehensive study of surface geomorphic processes.
Tectonic Geomorphology of Mountains: A New Approach to Paleoseismology
Uplift by mountain-building forces changes fluvial landscapes. Pulsatory tectonic activity on a rangebounding fault increases relief, changes rates of geomorphic processes, and modifies the shapes of hills and streams. Landscape responses to uplift occupy a critical time frame for studies of past earthquakes between the brevity of instrumental seismic data and long-term geologic crustal shifts. The appealing challenge for us is to determine how and when nearby and distant parts of the landscape change in consecutive reaches upstream from a tectonically active range front. Each climatic and lithologic setting has a characteristic style and rate of erosion, which adds spice to the scientific challenge.