Geochemistry of oilfield waters
The purpose of this book is to provide information relevant to the analytical chemistry and geochemistry of oilfield waters. The book attempts to recognize the importance of subsurface oilfield waters as they are related to origin, migration, accumulation, and maturation of oil and gas and thus their relationship t o exploration for and production of oil and gas. One chapter presents a simplistic introduction to the origin of oilfield waters. Because oilfield waters can constitute an environmental pollution hazard, the book describe and comments on methods of their disposal or of recovering valuable constituents from them.
Contaminant Geochemistry: Interactions and Transport in the Subsurface Environment combines the earth science fields of subsurface hydrology and environmental geochemistry and aims to provide a comprehensive background for students and researchers interested in protection and sustainable management of the subsurface environment. This book focuses on the upper part of the earth’s crust, covering the region between the land surface and the groundwater zone; anthropogenic contamination occurs primarily in this well-defined geosystem.
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY Site Characterization, Data Analysis and Case Histories
The volume ‘‘Environmental Geochemistry: Site Characterization, Data Analysis, Case Histories’’ contains selected papers presented at the ‘‘Workshop: Environmental Geochemistry—Site Characterization, Waste Disposal, Data Analysis, Case Histories’’ held in Napoli (Italy) on May 4–5, 2006. Participants from private and public institutions of Canada, Finland, Greece, Italy, the UK, and USA, took part.
The theme of the Workshop was multidisciplinary methods of characterizing contaminated sites using modern geochemistry with examples from different countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. Special themes included soil, surface, and ground waters contamination, environment pollution, and human health, and data interpretation and management.
At the more local scale, site characterization and site remediation technologies in soil were considered, as well as, sewage sludge disposal. Case histories of brownfield sites in Italy, UK, and USA were also presented.
Environmental Geology Facing the challenges of our changing earth
Environmental geology is a relatively new science. It deals with the relationship between people and their geologic environment. The main emphasis is on natural hazards and the ecological problems created by human activities. Environmental geology applies geologic information toward solving natural and human-caused problems. Other topics of importance to environmental geology include ecology, the interaction of life and its habitat; hydrology, the cycle of water from the sea onto the land; natural resources, the sources of minerals and energy; and land use, the utilization of Earth’s land surface.
Environmental organic chemistry
“Don’t worry, we will never do it again!”
This is the promise we sincerely made almost 10 years ago to our families, friends, and colleagues after having survived together the writing of the first edition of our textbook Environmental Organic Chemistry, and made once more after finishing the companion Problems Book two years later. But keeping such promises and keeping up with this rapidly expanding, exciting field of environmental sciences seem to be two things that are mutually exclusive. Hence, with fading memories of what it was really like, and flattered by the success of the first edition of our textbook, we decided to take on the challenge again; maybe at first not realizing that we have grown older and, as a consequence, that our professional lives have become much more diverse and busy than they used to be. Furthermore, what began as a minor revision and updating of the first edition soon developed its own dynamics, completely overturned old chapters and created new ones. During this process it became clear to us that the integration of the Problems Book with its two additional system chapters on rivers and groundwater into the main book would shift the gravity of the new edition toward the system approach, however, not at the expense of the fundamental chemical principles, but by adding more physics and mathematical modeling. This is now the product of four years of struggling with an immense amount of recent literature, as well as of continuously suffering from being on the horns of a dilemma; that is, the attempt to provide a fundamental text combining background theory, illustrative examples, and questions and problems, and, at the same time, to give a state-of-theart account of a rather broad and interdisciplinary field. However, it would be completely wrong to view the writing of this second edition solely as an ordeal; on the contrary, particularly the many exciting discussions with numerous students and colleagues have been very rewarding and most enjoyable. We hope that some of this joy will also be felt by our readers.
Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC.
Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility products, are often provided as data sets within the respective programs. However, the description o surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data.
En el libro "Geoquímica Recreativa", el académico Alexander Fersman expone en forma literaria los resultados de sus trabajos durante muchos años, dedicados a la creación de una nueva rama de la ciencia geológica, la Geoquímica, con objeto de mostrar, a base de su riquísima imaginación y experiencia científica, la vida química de nuestro planeta.
Con su admirable arte de popularizador explica de forma sencilla y atrayente las ideas más complicadas. El lector se convence de que la comprensión de la estructura del átomo es absolutamente necesaria para el estudio de los elementos químicos que forman la corteza terrestre.
The term “geochemistry” was first used by the Swiss chemist Schönbein in 1838. You might guess, merely from the etymology of the word, that the field of geochemistry is somehow a marriage of the fields of geology and chemistry. That would be a good guess. But just how are chemistry and geology combined within geochemistry; what is the relationship between them? Perhaps the best explanation would be to state that in geochemistry, we use the tools of chemistry to solve geological problems that is, we use chemistry to understand the Earth and how it works. The Earth is part of a family of heavenly bodies, our Solar System, that formed simultaneously and are closely related. Hence, the realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth to encompass the entire Solar System. The goals of geochemistry are thus no different from those of other fields of earth science; just the approach differs. On the other hand, while geochemists have much in common with other chemists, their goals differ in fundamental ways. For example, our goals do not include elucidating the nature of chemical bonding or synthesizing new compounds, although these may often be of interest and use in geochemistry. Though geochemistry is a subdiscipline of earth science, it is a very broad topic. So broad in fact that no one can really master it all; geochemists invariably specialize in one or a few aspects, such as atmospheric chemistry, geochemical thermodynamics, isotope geochemistry, marine chemistry, trace element geochemistry, soil chemistry, etc.
Handbook of Exploration and Environmental Geochemistry. (Volume 11) Geochemical Anomaly and Mineral Prospectivity Mapping in GIS
Twenty-five years ago, when the second volume of the Handbook of Exploration Geochemistry was published (Howarth, 1983), computers were just becoming useful tools in the analysis of mineral exploration data sets but mapping of geochemical anomalies and prospective areas still usually involved overlaying transparent geochemical map(s) and a geological map on a light table. The late 1980s through the 1990s saw rapid and far-reaching developments in quantitative techniques for mapping geochemical anomalies and mineral prospectivity due to the substantial improvements in the efficiency and availability of computer hardware and software (Agterberg, 1989) including geographic information system (GIS) technology (Burrough, 1987; Bonham- Carter and Agterberg, 1990; Maguire et al., 1991). Two textbooks and several papers published in exploration-related literature have explained and documented various GISaided and/or GIS-based methods for analysis of multiple geoscience spatial data sets in order to derive and synthesise pieces of geo-information that are pertinent to the decision-making process at every scale of target generation in mineral exploration.
Fundamentos de la geoquimica del petroleo
No existe ninguna duda sobre el origen orgánico del petróleo. La geoquímica orgánica ha realizado grandes progresos demostrando que en su mayor parte procede de la acumulación de enormes cantidades de algas marinas microscópicas y unicelulares así como de animales microscópicos (el placton marino). A ésto hay que añadir los restos de peces que tambien contribuyen a su formación.
Todos estos restos, animales y vegetales, acumulados en el fondo del mar, sobre todo en lagunas costeras, bahías, albúferas, etc constituyen un barro orgánico llamado sapropel que mezclado con arenas y arcillas y cubierto de margas ha originado lo que se llaman "las rocas madre del petróleo".
Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide (Developments in Geochemistry Series, Volume 11)
Dear human reader, let me briefly explain how this book was conceived. I live in Viareggio, which is called the Pearl of the Tyrrhenian sea, since most people knows Viareggio for its sandy beaches and the carnival parade of papier-m~ch6 carts. During the carnival there is no access to the downtown beach, otherwise people go to the parade without paying the ticket, which is a very popular practice in Italy. On the contrary, in summertime there is too much access to the beaches, which become places of very high density, in terms of inhabitants per square meter, of course.
Developments in Geochemistry 9. High-Pressure Geochemistry and Mineral Physics
In the second half of twentieth century, the discipline of planetary science has witnessed three major episodes, which have revolutionized its approach and content: (i) the plate-tectonic theory, (ii) human landing and discoveries in planetary astronomy, and (iii) the extraordinary technical advancement in high P–T studies, which have largely been abetted by a vast improvement in computational methods. Using these new computational methods, such as first principles including ab initio models, calculations have been made for the electronic structure, bonding, thermal EOS, elasticity, melting, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. Indeed, significant achievements have been made at the cross-roads of physics and planetary science.
Almost six years have passed since the launching of the first edition of this textbook. The friendly acceptance and brisk demand of the “Marine Geochemistry” have encouraged us to prepare the second edition. Six years mean a comparatively long period for a relatively young discipline such as marine geochemistry. Data and measurements from numerous expeditions, results of different new methods and techniques, as well as findings of various research programs justify a careful revision of the first edition.
Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry of Sedimentary and Aquatic Systems
This book is based on the script of a lecture course in isotope geochemistry, which is given at the University of Strasbourg, France and at the Eidgen6ssische Tech nische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland by Peter Stille. It is intended to be read by geologists, hydrologists, geochemists and any researchers and students from the broad fieldof environmental science. Its purpose is to enable readers to venture safely into the often mirky realms of radiogenic isotope geochemistry' applied to sedimentary and aquatic systems. The authors have strived to construct the book in such a way that it can be read and understood by those readers, especially students, who have no background in geochemistry. 7 chapters.take the reader through the rock cycle from weathering on the continent to eventual deposition in the sea, looked at largely from the perspective of radiogenic isotope geochemistry.
Stable Isotope Geochemistry
Stable isotope investigations in the earth sciences continue to grow, maybe faster than ever before. After publication of the 5th edition, tremendous progress has been achieved in many subfields of stable isotope geochemistry. To name a few:
– Applications of Multicollector - ICP-MS has grown rapidly and now enable investigations on natural isotope variations of a wide range of transition and heavy elements that could not previously be measured with adequate precision.
– Precise ion probe measurements on the micrometer scale allow the detection of the growth and dissolution history of minerals.
– Evidence for mass-independent fractionation in a variety of compounds and elements has increased considerably.
– High precision analysis of the multiple rare isotopes of a specific element permit the distinction of different mass-dependent fractionation mechanisms.
– Precise measurements of molecules containing more than one rare isotope indicate non-random distributions of the rare isotopes, which potentially may be utilized as one-mineral thermometers.